How does nimodipine treat subarachnoid hemorrhage?

How does nimodipine treat subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Nimodipine is used to decrease problems due to a certain type of bleeding in the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage-SAH). Nimodipine is called a calcium channel blocker. The body naturally responds to bleeding by narrowing the blood vessel to slow blood flow.

When should nimodipine be given?

It is usually taken every 4 hours for 21 days in a row. Treatment with nimodipine should be started as soon as possible, no later than 96 hours after a subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs.

What is a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) involves bleeding into the space between the surface of the brain, or pia mater, and the arachnoid, one of three coverings of the brain. Trauma is the most common cause of spontaneous SAH, and 75 percent to 80 percent of spontaneous SAHs involve ruptured brain aneurysms.

Is traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage a TBI?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results frequently from traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Does nimodipine cross the blood brain barrier?

Nimodipine is a 1,4-dihydropyridine-derivative Ca(2+)-channel blocker developed approximately 30 years ago. It is highly lipophilic, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and reaches brain and cerebrospinal fluid.

Does nimodipine lower blood pressure?

In conclusion, at the doses currently used in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, nimodipine has a minimal effect on blood pressure.

How do you administer nimodipine?

Nimotop (nimodipine) is given orally in the form of ivory colored, soft gelatin 30 mg capsules for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The oral dose is 60 mg (two 30 mg capsules) every 4 hours for 21 consecutive days, preferably not less than one hour before or two hours after meals.

What causes a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of stroke. Head trauma is the most common cause. In patients without head trauma, SAH is most commonly caused by a brain aneurysm. A brain aneurysm is a ballooning of an artery in the brain that can rupture and bleed into the space between the brain and the skull.

What is the most common cause of a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

A subarachnoid haemorrhage is most often caused by a burst blood vessel in the brain (a ruptured brain aneurysm). A brain aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel caused by a weakness in the blood vessel wall, usually at a point where the vessel branches off.

What is considered a traumatic brain injury?

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a blow, bump or jolt to the head, the head suddenly and violently hitting an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.

Are there beneficial effects of nimodipine on patients with traumatic haemorrhage?

Our results do not lend support to the finding of a beneficial effect of nimodipine on outcome in patients with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage as reported in an earlier Cochrane review.

When was nimodipine first used for traumatic head injury?

Since nimodipine is believed to have neuroprotective properties, the drug was suggested to be of potential benefit in patients with traumatic head injury. The first report on nimodipine treatment in patients with severe head injury dates from 1984.

When was the first nimodipine Tsah study done?

✓ A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nimodipine used to treat traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) was conducted in 21 German neurosurgical centers between January 1994 and April 1995.

What was the effect of nimodipine in hit 3?

The HIT 3 study showed a small but significant beneficial effect in nimodipine-treated patients. To confirm this favourable effect in a much larger group of patients, HIT 4 was started. Unexpectedly, HIT 4 showed a significant increase in poor outcome in nimodipine-treated patients.