What are tumor markers Slideshare?

What are tumor markers Slideshare?

 A tumor marker is a substance present in or produced by a tumor (benign or malignant)  or by the tumor’s host in response to the tumor’s presence  that can be used to differentiate a tumor from normal tissue  or to determine the presence of a tumor based on measurement in the blood or secretions and that can be …

What are the different types of tumor markers?

There are many different types of tumour markers, including:

  • alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • cancer antigen 125 (CA125)
  • cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3)
  • carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)
  • carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
  • human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or beta-hCG)
  • prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

What are tumor markers and examples?

Examples of commonly used circulating tumor markers include calcitonin (measured in blood), which is used to assess treatment response, screen for recurrence, and estimate prognosis in medullary thyroid cancer; CA-125 (measured in blood), to monitor how well cancer treatments are working and if cancer has come back in …

What are tumor marker tests?

A test that measures the amount of substances called tumor markers in tissue, blood, urine, or other body fluids. Most tumor markers are made by both normal cells and cancer cells, but they are made in higher amounts by cancer cells.

What are the enzymes useful as tumor markers?

The most commonly used tumor markers with enzymatic activity are: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) Alkaline phosphatase.

What are the most common tumor markers?

Tumor Markers in Common Use

  • ALK gene rearrangements and overexpression.
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • B-cell immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.
  • BCL2 gene rearrangement.
  • Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M)
  • Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta-hCG)
  • Bladder Tumor Antigen (BTA)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations.

Which tumor marker is elevated in most cancers?

Guide to Tumor Markers Used in Cancer

Tumor Marker Cancers Associated With Elevated Results
CA 27.29 Cancer Antigen 27.29 or Carbohydrate Antigen 27.29 Breast** (best used to detect recurrence or metastasis). Colon, gastric, liver, lung, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate cancers
Calcitonin Medullary thyroid cancer**

What are the common tumor markers available in the clinical laboratory?

A variety of types of markers are available in the routine clinical laboratory including enzymes, oncofetal antigens, oncogene products, monoclonal antibody-defined epitopes, and hormones.

What blood test shows tumor markers?

A CA-125 test measures the amount of the cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in a person’s blood. CA-125 is a protein that is a biomarker or tumor marker. The protein is found in higher concentration in cancer cells, particularly ovarian cancer cells.

What is the normal range for tumor markers?

Normal range: < 2.5 ng/ml. Normal range may vary somewhat depending on the brand of assay used. Levels > 10 ng/ml suggest extensive disease and levels > 20 ng/ml suggest metastatic disease.

What are the tumor markers in routine use?

• Therapeutic selection (her2/neu, kras) Tumor markers in routine use Marker Cancer CA15-3, BR 27.29 Breast CEA, CA 19-9 Colorectal CA 72.4, CA 19-9, CEA Gastric NSE, CYFA 21.1 Lung PSA, PAP Prostate CA 125 Ovarian Calcitonin, thyroglobulin Thyroid hCG Trophoblastic

Which is the best tumor marker for lung cancer?

• Therapeutic selection (her2/neu, kras) Tumor markers in routine use Marker Cancer CA15-3, BR 27.29 Breast CEA, CA 19-9 Colorectal CA 72.4, CA 19-9, CEA Gastric NSE, CYFA 21.1 Lung

Which is a marker for metastasis to the brain?

Placental ALP, regan isoenzyme, elevates in a variety of malignancies, including ovarian, lung, gastrointestinal cancers and Hodgkin’s disease. hCG does not cross the blood-brain barier. Higher levels in BOS may indicate metastasis to brain. These markers either are antigens on the tumor cell surface or are secreted by tumor cells.

When to use CA-125 as a cancer marker?

The predominant use of CA-125 is in monitoring the status of patients with known ovarian cancer. Persistent elevation of serum CA-125 has generally reflected persistence of disease at second-look surveillance procedures.