What is the M13 bacteriophage used for?

What is the M13 bacteriophage used for?

Recently, M13 bacteriophage has started to be widely used as a functional nanomaterial for various electrical, chemical, or optical applications, such as battery components, photovoltaic cells, sensors, and optics. In addition, the use of M13 bacteriophage has expanded into novel research, such as exciton transporting.

What is importance of M13 bacteriophage in site directed mutagenesis?

The bacteriophage known as “M13” forms the basis of cloning systems designed to easily introduce mutations into genes inserted into the phage genome. It also has been used in various “phage display” methodologies and “combinatorial” DNA and peptide libraries.

What is the size of M13 phage vector in kB?

Bacteriophage lambda’s insert size limit is about 20–25 kB, whereas the M13 insert size is about 12 kB. Bacteriophage P1–based vectors can accommodate up to 100-kB inserts (see below).

Is M13 lytic or lysogenic?

Phages are divided into three main classes based on their production and generation: lytic phages such as T4; temperate phages like Lambda; and lysogenic phages such as M13. M13 is a filamentous phage that converts the host cell into a generation factory without lytic disruption.

Why is bacteriophage M13 useful as sequencing vector?

Lengths of DNA are cloned into the bacteriophage M13 that provides a source of large quantities of single-stranded DNA. This single-stranded DNA can then be used as a template in a primer extension dideoxynucleotide sequence reaction. M13 is the vector of choice for dideoxy sequencing for two main reasons.

What is M13 plasmid?

M13 is one of the Ff phages (fd and f1 are others), a member of the family filamentous bacteriophage (inovirus). M13 plasmids are used for many recombinant DNA processes, and the virus has also been used for phage display, directed evolution, nanostructures and nanotechnology applications.

How is M13 vector used for mutagenesis?

Abstract. An improved method is described for the construction of mutations in M13 vectors using synthetic oligonucleotides. In this “coupled priming” technique, one primer is used to construct the silent mutation of interest, and a second primer is used to eliminate the selectable marker on the minus strand.

Why do we need to use M13 phage based vectors?

M13 cloning vectors have been developed for the selection of DNA sequences capable of directing initiation of DNA synthesis on single-stranded templates. These vectors are derived from viable M13 mutants containing large deletions in the region of the complementary strand origin.

What is an M13 vector?

What is the size in nm of a wild type M13 virion?

approximately 900 nm
Bacteriophage M13 particles are 7 nm in diameter. The length is dependent on the length of the enclosed genome and is for the wild type approximately 900 nm. The viral particle is composed of a single-stranded circular DNA molecule that is encapsulated in a long cylindrical protein coat.

What is M13 biology?

a naturally occurring bacteriophage that contains a single-stranded circular genome of about 6400 Bases that infects only enteric bacteria containing the F-factor or producing the F pilus protein.

Why is M13 used for sequencing?

M13 is the vector of choice for dideoxy sequencing for two main reasons. First, M13 bacteriophages are packaged in single strands of DNA, which are extruded from infected Escherichia coli cells into the surrounding culture medium.

How does phage M13 infect the host cell?

M13 uses the F pilus of E. coli to infect the cell. Protein pill located on the tip of M13 contacts the TolA protein located on the pilus of host cell. This interaction causes a conformational change in pVIlI from 100% alpha-helix to 85% alpha-helix resulting in the shortening of filament.

What is the production process for bacteriophage?

Therefore, a method for bacteriophage production requires a production process involving at least two operating units, growth of the host bacteria and bacteriophage propagation (or infection).

Who are the manufacturers of bacteriophage in Europe?

In Europe, a Dutch company Micreos BV (Wageningen, Netherlands) also marketed bacteriophage products against Salmonella and E. coli and a German company, Fink Tec (Hamm, Germany), targeting E. coli ( Moye et al., 2018 ).

Why are bacteriophages important to the microbial community?

Bacteriophages have come into focus of scientific research, as they play an important role in almost every microbial community. As viral predators of bacteria, they have a substantial influence on microbial populations and dynamics in different environments.