What is the Tympanomeatal flap?
tympanomeatal flaps have been useful in underlay tympanoplasty and other Otologic surgery. The elevated tympanomeatal flap allows access for a number of middle ear procedures like repair of TM or perilymph fistula, ossiculoplasty, Page 2 remove growths such as cholesteatoma and glomus tumour.
Why is Tympanotomy done?
A myringotomy may be done: To restore hearing loss caused by chronic fluid build-up and to prevent delayed speech development caused by hearing loss in children. To place tympanostomy tubes — these tubes help to equalize pressure.
What is the fissure of Santorini?
The fissures of Santorini are natural openings within the anterior cartilage in the lateral aspect of the canal that may allow infectious or neoplastic processes to extend from the parotid gland to the canal or the opposite scenario (Fig. 2a, b) .
Where is the Tympanomeatal flap?
Tympanomeatal flaps may be cut rectangular or triangular with the apex directed laterally. The lateral extent of the flap should measure 8 mm from the tympanic annulus. A curvilinear or square flap typically spans from 12 o’clock to 6 o’clock position posteriorly.
What is meant by tympanotomy?
Tympanostomy is a surgical procedure in which a small cut (incision) is made on the eardrum (also called the tympanic membrane) to place a small tube called the tympanostomy tube in the ear. It plays a role in hearing and preventing the entry of any foreign material in the middle ear.
Why does the clinician use Otoscopic examination?
The purpose of otoscopic examination is to evaluate the condition of the ear canal, tympanic membrane and the middle ear.
What is Petrotympanic fissure?
The petrotympanic fissure, also known as the Glaserian (or glaserian) fissure, is a small fissure in the temporal bone that connects the mandibular (glenoid) fossa and the tympanic cavity.
What is Stylomastoid foramen?
The stylomastoid foramen is a rounded opening at the inferior end of the facial canal. It is located on the inferior surface of the petrous temporal bone, between the base of the styloid process and the mastoid process of the temporal bone.
How are incisions made for the tympanomeatal flap?
With a sickle and round knife, canal skin incisions are created to form the tympanomeatal flap (see the image below). Endaural speculum used to assist in retraction of tissues as incision through the incisura terminalis is made. Tympanomeatal flaps may be cut rectangular or triangular with the apex directed laterally.
How is the annulus raised in a tympanotomy?
Outline of canal skin incisions to create tympanomeatal flap. The annulus elevator is used to raise the fibrous annulus from its bony groove. Elevation of the annulus begins inferiorly toward the hypotympanum and proceeds superiorly toward the oval window niche, thereby gradually increasing the exposure into the middle ear.
What kind of speculum is used for tympanotomy?
Endaural speculum used to assist in retraction of tissues as incision through the incisura terminalis is made. Tympanomeatal flaps may be cut rectangular or triangular with the apex directed laterally. The lateral extent of the flap should measure 8 mm from the tympanic annulus.
How is the chorda tympani nerve liberated from the bony canal?
Rosen needle used to facilitate elevation of tympanomeatal flap as entry is made into the middle ear. If additional posterior-superior exposure is desired, the chorda tympani nerve can be liberated from its bony canal by curetting the bone lateral to the nerve or using an otologic drill with a diamond bur.