What is the underlying pathology of osteoarthritis?

What is the underlying pathology of osteoarthritis?

The pathogenesis of OA involves a degradation of cartilage and remodelling of bone due to an active response of chondrocytes in the articular cartilage and the inflammatory cells in the surrounding tissues.

What is the mechanism of damage for osteoarthritis?

The signature pathologic feature of OA is articular cartilage loss which is typically recognised on plain radiographs as a reduction in joint space. Loss of cartilage and joint disruption is linked with attempts at repair with new bone formation occurring and the development of subchondral sclerosis and osteophytes.

What is the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease?

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASES: Osteoarthrosis is characterized by progressive erosion of articular cartilage and bone overgrowth at the joint margins. Cartilage integrity requires balance between synthesis and degradation of matrix components.

What are cytokines in osteoarthritis?

Cytokines in Osteoarthritis Cytokines that have been implicated in OA pathogenesis include tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, other common γ-chain cytokines such as IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, and chemokines (reviewed in [6, 10]).

What is the pathophysiology of joint pain?

Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms, joint pain usually originates in activation of nociceptors, or free nerve endings. Nociceptive signals release a large number of neuromediators, such as substance P and the calcitonin gene-related peptide.

How osteoarthritis is caused?

Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints gradually deteriorates. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that enables nearly frictionless joint motion. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, bone will rub on bone.

Which joints are affected by osteoarthritis What in the physiology is affected?

Osteoarthritis can degrade cartilage, change bone shape and cause inflammation, resulting in pain, stiffness and loss of mobility. OA can affect any joint, but typically affects hands, knees, hips, lower back and neck.

What causes degenerative bone disease?

What causes degenerative joint disease? The underlying cause of degenerative joint disease is repetitive motion that causes wear and tear of the cartilage around the joints. This causes severe pain, stiffness, tenderness, and inflammation, and develops into a chronic condition as the disease progresses.

What causes inflammatory cytokines?

An inflammatory cytokine is a type of cytokine (a signaling molecule) that is secreted from immune cells and certain other cell types that promotes inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines are predominantly produced by T helper cells (Th) and macrophages and involved in the upregulation of inflammatory reactions.

What is the function of cytokines?

The primary function of cytokines is to regulate inflammation, and as such, play a vital role in regulating the immune response in health and disease. There are proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

What is the role of ECM in pathophysiology of osteoarthritis?

It is a complex disease whose pathogenesis, changes the tissue homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone, determine the predominance of destructive processes. A key role in the pathophysiology of articular cartilage is played by cell/extra-cellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Is the synthesis of IL-1ß upregulated in osteoarthritis?

Synthesis of IL-1ß and TNF-, as well as their membrane-bound receptors, is upregulated in osteoarthritis.

How to describe the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis?

Review Article The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis 1 2.1. Pain. The most common symptom is a chronic pain, 3 during development… 2 2.2. Joint stiffness. The concept of joint stiffness in arthritis and related pathology diseases was… 3 2.3. Muscle weakness. Quadriceps muscle strengthening is an important protective function…

What causes bone marrow lesions in osteoarthritis?

Bone marrow lesions are also present in osteoarthritis and can be attributed to remodeling caused by improper joint movement, load-bearing, and mechanical overload of damaged joints. 8  In those with osteoarthritis, changes in the bone supporting the joint cartilage (subchondral bone) occur.