What type of malaria is caused by Plasmodium knowlesi?
Humans infected with P. knowlesi can develop uncomplicated or severe malaria similar to that caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Diagnosis of P. knowlesi infection is challenging as P….
How is Plasmodium knowlesi diagnosed?
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a promising method for diagnosis of knowlesi malaria in the field. These methods detect small subunit ribosomal RNA as the molecular target. However, recent studies demonstrated the use of multicopy, repetitive sequence as the molecular target in single-step PCR detection of P.
How is Plasmodium knowlesi transmitted to humans?
Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) is a zoonotic malaria parasite, transmitted between non-human primate hosts by the Anopheles (An.) mosquitos, and causing spill-over infections in humans where the parasite, vector, host and human converge.
When was Plasmodium knowlesi discovered?
Plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans. Plasmodium knowlesi, initially identified in 1931 in a Macaca fascicularis monkey originating in Singapore, was shown in 1932 to be capable of infecting humans through the transfer of infected rhesus monkey blood .
What is the incubation period of Plasmodium knowlesi?
The incubation period for transfusion-associated malaria ranges from 8 to 90 days. P. falciparum has the shortest time, mean 17 days (range, 8 to 36 days) and P. malariae the longest, mean 50 days (range, 8 to 90 days).
Is P knowlesi zoonotic?
Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic malaria parasite normally residing in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina, respectively) found throughout Southeast Asia.
What is zoonotic malaria?
Zoonotic malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malaria is caused by four different species of Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P.
What is the role of the apical complex?
RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites. Apicomplexan parasites comprise major human pathogens, including the malaria-causing parasites Plasmodium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii that causes birth defects and neurological disorders.
What is the interaction between Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1?
Interaction between Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and the rhoptry neck protein complex defines a key step in the erythrocyte invasion process of malaria parasites Invasion of host cells by apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, is a multistep process.
How is the apical complex of the plasma membrane organized?
The apical complex is organized around an apical polar ring that serves as a microtubule organizing center that nucleates an array of subpellicular microtubules that descend toward the posterior of the cell ( Figure 1A)  – . These microtubules subtend flattened membrane sacs, or alveoli, that line most of the plasma membrane .
Where is rng2 located in the apical complex?
We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring—the common structural element of apical complexes.