Why is APeo bad?

Why is APeo bad?

Concentrations of APEOs have been measured worldwide in surface waters, sediments and sewage. Slow to biodegrade, APEOs are toxic to aquatic organisms and an endocrine-disruptor to higher animals, and therefore pose a significant risk to humans.

What is nonylphenol used for?

Nonylphenol is used in manufacturing antioxidants, lubricating oil additives, laundry and dish detergents, emulsifiers, and solubilizers.

What happens when male fish are exposed to APEO?

A previous study reported that male fish exposed to NP and OP exhibited decreased reproductive capacity and vitellogenin synthesis, which resulted in yolk degeneration in piscine oocytes [14]. In addition, dogs treated with APEO mixtures exhibited symptoms of cardiotoxicity [12].

What does APEO free mean?

The manufacturers have often developed APEO-free raw materials and these raw materials would be possible substitutes in the actual products without or with few adjustments in the product formulation. This means that substitution of other raw materials can be necessary even if they do not contain APEO.

What does NPEO stand for?


Acronym Definition
NPEO North Pole Environmental Observatory (US NSF)
NPEO Nonylphenol Polyethoxylate
NPEO Nuclear Plant Equipment Operator

Is nonylphenol banned?

Nonylphenol ethoxylates to be banned in imported clothing and textiles. The European Union’s REACH Chemicals Committee has voted unanimously to implement a ban on imported textiles and clothing containing nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) above a maximum permitted level of 0.01 % m/m.

What is difference between phenol and nonylphenol?

The key difference between phenol and nonylphenol is that phenol has a hydroxyl group substituted into a benzene ring whereas nonylphenol has a hydroxyl group and another organic group substituted to a benzene ring. Organic compounds are chemical compounds having carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Where are alkylphenol ethoxylates found in the environment?

The main degradation products formed in sewage treatment plants or in rivers are alkylphenol ethoxylates with fewer ethoxylate groups, alkylphenoxy carboxylic acids and alkylphenols. Studies suggest that these compounds persist in rivers, sediment and groundwater (1-3).

How are alkylphenols used in the everyday world?

Alkylphenols are used to make alkylphenol ethoxylates, surfactants that increase the efficiency of detergents and other cleaning products. They are also used as raw materials in the production of plastics and pesticides. [1] One of the most common alkylphenols is 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). [2]

What are the different classes of alcohol ethoxylates?

Several classes can be distinguished: alcohol ethoxylates, alkyl phenol ethoxylates, fatty acid ethoxylates, sorbitan ester ethoxylates, fatty amine ethoxylates, and ethylene oxide–propylene oxide copolymers (sometimes referred to as polymer surfactants).

What is the retention time of alcohol ethoxylates?

In Fig. 3 are shown the foam retention time for straight-chain and branched-chain alcohol ethoxylates as a function of their HLB value. The retention time exhibited a maximum at an HLB value of around 10, where a good foam performance was obtained.