What causes chorea gravidarum?

What causes chorea gravidarum?

The choreic movements may be caused by ischaemia or enhanced dopaminergic sensitivity mediated by increased female hormones during pregnancy. Chorea gravidarum is considered a syndrome rather than a specific disease entity.

What is Athetoid movement?

Athetosis refers to the slow, involuntary, and writhing movements of the limbs, face, neck, tongue, and other muscle groups. The fingers are also affected, with their flexing happening separately and irregularly. The hands move, and the toes and feet may also experience the effect.

What is senile chorea?

The term “senile chorea” is applied to cases of sporadic chorea with onset after the age of 50 years. The causes of senile chorea are numerous and include drugs, medications, cerebrovascular disease, genetic and sporadic neurodegenerations, and a range of systemic (hematological, metabolic, immune) disorders.

What is the difference between dystonia and chorea?

Dystonia is a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both. Chorea is an ongoing random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments.

Is chorea a neurological disease?

Chorea is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias, which are caused by overactivity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the areas of the brain that control movement.

What part of the brain is affected by Sydenham chorea?

Group A streptococcus bacteria can react with a part of the brain called basal ganglia to cause this disorder. The basal ganglia are a set of structures deep in the brain. They help control movement, posture, and speech. Sydenham chorea is a major sign of acute RF.

Can adults get Sydenham chorea?

It usually develops in children between the ages of 5-15. Rarely, the disorder has been reported in children under age 5 years or in adults. Sydenham chorea affects individuals of all races and ethnicities.

What causes Athetoid CP?

Athetoid cerebral palsy is one of several types of movement disorders caused by a brain injury. Each type of cerebral palsy differs based on which part of the brain is damaged. Athetoid cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the basal ganglia and/or the cerebellum.

What is choreo Athetosis?

Choreoathetosis is a movement disorder that is usually a symptom of another underlying cause. It causes involuntary movements throughout the body. Choreoathetosis combines the symptoms of two other conditions: chorea and athetosis. Someone can experience chorea or athetosis separately or at the same time.

Is chorea a symptom of Parkinson’s disease?

Chorea is a common symptom of Huntington’s disease and other less-common diseases. Chorea is also frequently observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease taking a medication called levodopa. In this case, it is referred to as “dyskinesias.”

Which is the first line of treatment for hyponatremia?

For serious symptomatic hyponatremia, the first line of treatment is prompt intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline, with a target increase of 6 mmol/L over 24 hours (not exceeding 12 mmol/L) and an additional 8 mmol/L during every 24 hours thereafter until the patient’s serum sodium concentration reaches 130 mmol/L.

How is hyponatremia related to neurologic complications?

In contrast, a symptomatic patient with chronic hyponatremia is more at risk from rapid correction of hyponatremia. Overly rapid correction of serum sodium can precipitate severe neurologic complications, such as central pontine myelinosis, which can produce spastic quadriparesis, swallowing dysfunction, pseudobulbar palsy, and mutism.

What happens to serum sodium in hypovolemic SIADH?

In euvolemic SIADH serum sodium will not change appreciably in response to 0.9% NaCl, but the urinary sodium will increase. Conversely, in hypovolemic hyponatremia the saline infusion will improve the serum sodium, leaving the urinary sodium more or less unchanged [Ellis, 1995].

What is the difference between hypovolemic and euvolemic hyponatremia?

Hypovolemic hyponatremia due to extra-renal volume loss. Hypervolemic hyponatemia (e.g. heart failure, cirrhosis). This represents a grey zone, provides no clear information. Euvolemic hyponatremia (SIADH, hypothyroidism, or adrenal insufficiency).