What do you mean by molecular mimicry?
Molecular mimicry is structural, functional or immunological similarities shared between macromolecules found on infectious pathogens and in host tissues. Molecular mimicry plays an important role in immune responses to infection and in autoimmune diseases.
What is molecular mimicry examples?
Molecular mimicry has long been implicated as a mechanism by which microbes can induce autoimmunity. 115. The best known example is rheumatic fever, in which antigenic cross-reactivity between cardiac tissue and streptococcal polysaccharides is believed to induce an autoimmune reaction targeted at the heart valves.
What is antigenic in biology?
Antigen (definition in biology): any of the various substances that when recognized as non-self by the immune system will trigger an immune response. Examples: allergens, blood group antigens, HLA, substances on the surface of foreign cells, toxins.
What is viral mimicry?
Related terms. Viral apoptotic mimicry, defined by the exposure of phosphatidylserine — a marker for apoptosis — on the pathogen surface, in the case of apoptosis, the dead cell surface that is used to gain viral access to the interior of immune cells.
What is molecular mimicry in immunology?
Molecular mimicry is one of the leading mechanisms by which infectious or chemical agents may induce autoimmunity. It occurs when similarities between foreign and self-peptides favor an activation of autoreactive T or B cells by a foreign-derived antigen in a susceptible individual.
How does molecular mimicry occur?
What is an antigen simple definition?
antigen, substance that is capable of stimulating an immune response, specifically activating lymphocytes, which are the body’s infection-fighting white blood cells. Foreign antigens originate from outside the body.
What is antigen and its function?
An antigen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response by activating leukocytes (white blood cells) that fight disease. Antigens may be present on invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and transplanted organs, or on abnormal cells, such as cancer cells.
What is protein mimicry?
Molecular mimicry is immune cross-recognition of conformational protein or carbohydrate structures and/or amino acid sequences with similarities between microbes and human tissues.
What is meant by immunological surveillance?
Definition. Immunological surveillance is a monitoring process of the immune system to detect and destroy virally infected and neoplastically transformed cells in the body.
What is molecular mimicry in autoimmunity?
Why Is Gluten Bad for autoimmune disease?
If you have an autoimmune condition, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, gluten can trigger inflammation, and lead to gut dysbiosis. Eliminating gluten can decrease symptoms, but it is not only gluten that causes these issues. The inflammatory state that can increase symptoms is driven by more than gluten alone.
Which is the best definition of antigenic mimicry?
antigenic mimicry. Acquisition or production of host antigens by a parasite, enabling it to avoid detection by the host’s immune system.
Which is the best definition of molecular mimicry?
molecular mimicry. (mĭm′ĭk-rē) Antigenic similarity between molecules found on some disease-causing microorganisms and on specific previously healthy body cells or tissues. Molecular mimicry is one explanation for autoimmune diseases.
How is molecular mimicry used in autoimmune disease?
Molecular mimicry is one explanation for autoimmune diseases. After infection with a microorganism whose surface contains antigens similar to those found in the body, the immune system may respond inappropriately by trying to damage these cells with similar surface antigens in otherwise healthy joints, blood vessels, or other organs.
Which is the best definition of an antigen?
A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune response. An antigen is usually a foreign substance, such as a toxin or a component of a virus, bacterium, or parasite. an′ti·gen′ic (-jĕn′ĭk) adj. an′ti·gen′i·cal·ly adv.