What does PACAP do?

What does PACAP do?

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene. PACAP is similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide. One of its effects is to stimulate enterochromaffin-like cells.

Where is PACAP produced?

Highest concentrations of PACAP occur in the hypothalamus, specifically in the paraventricular, periventricular, ventromedial, suprachiasmatic, and supraoptic nuclei. PACAP behaves as a hypothalamic-releasing hormone and is actively transported to the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system.

Is PACAP a hormone?

PACAP functions as a hypothalamic hormone, neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, vasodilator, and neurotrophic factor. Its structure has been remarkably conserved during evolution. The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupled with seven transmembrane domains and also belongs to the VIP receptor family.

Is PACAP a neuropeptide?

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a well-conserved neuropeptide characteristic of vertebrates. This pluripotent hypothalamic neuropeptide regulates neurotransmitter release, intestinal motility, metabolism, cell division/differentiation, and immunity.

What is pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide?

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP formation in anterior pituitary cells (Miyata et al., 1989.

What is the function of the PAC1 gene?

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor also known as PAC1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1R1 gene. This receptor binds pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide.

Is the PAC1 receptor in the vasoactive intestinal system?

The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor (PAC1R, ADCYAP1R1) is a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). PAC1R has been shown to play crucial roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Which is part of Pac 1 binds cyclase activating peptide?

This receptor binds pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide. PAC 1 is a membrane-associated protein and shares significant homology with members of the G-protein coupled class B glucagon / secretin receptor family.

Where is Pac 1 located in the human body?

PAC 1 is expressed in the adrenal medulla, pancreatic acini, uterus, myenteric plexus and brain. It is also expressed in the trigeminal, otic and superior cervical ganglia (prejunctional) and cerebral arteries (postjunctional).