What does the pCD1 plasmid do?

What does the pCD1 plasmid do?

Plasmid pCD1 (70,504 bp) has a GC content of 44.8%. It is known to encode a number of essential virulence determinants, regulatory functions, and a multiprotein secretory system comprising the low-calcium response stimulation that is shared with the other two Yersinia species pathogenic for humans (Y.

Does Yersinia pestis have plasmids?

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, harbors at least three plasmids necessary for full virulence of the organism, two of which are species specific. One of the Y. pestis-specific plasmids, pMT1, is thought to promote deep tissue invasion, resulting in more acute onset of symptoms and death.

How many types of plasmids are there?

There are five main types of plasmids: fertility F-plasmids, resistance plasmids, virulence plasmids, degradative plasmids, and Col plasmids.

What is the structure of Yersinia pestis?

Cell structure and metabolism Yersinia pestis is a rod shaped gram-negative bacteria that can also have a spherical shape. It is also covered by a slime envelope that is heat labile. When the bacteria is in a host, it is nonmotile (incapable of self-propelled movement), but when isolated it is motile (1).

Does Yersinia pestis have DNA?

Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle.

How many plasmids are in bacteria?

Most plasmids are circular, made of DNA, and much smaller than chromosomes. The copy number is the number of copies of the plasmid in each bacterial cell. For most plasmids, it is 1 or 2 copies per chromosome, but it may be as many as 50 or more for certain small plasmids such as the ColE plasmids.

What does the Yersinia pestis look like?

General characteristics. Y. pestis is a nonmotile, stick-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium with bipolar staining (giving it a safety pin appearance) that produces an antiphagocytic slime layer. Similar to other Yersinia species, it tests negative for urease, lactose fermentation, and indole.

What is Yersinia pestis cell wall made of?

The LPS of Y. pestis is composed of a short carbohydrate (oligosaccharide) chain bound to lipid A [10, 12, 13]. This chain contains a conserved pentasaccharide moiety, the so-called inner core, which is typical of all wild strains of enterobacteria.

What is Yersinia pestis made of?

Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a gram-negative, non-motile, coccobacillus bacterium, without spores that is related to both Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is a facultative anaerobic organism that can infect humans via the Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis).

How does the pYV plasmid promote biofilm formation?

Scanning electron microscopy supported the result from the microtiter plate assay showing that in the presence of Ca 2+, the wild-type Y. enterocolitica strain formed a strong biofilm on a polycarbonate surface. The results implied that Ca 2+ promotes Y. enterocolitica biofilm formation through the function of the pYV plasmid.

Is the pYV plasmid associated with Yersinia pestis?

Virulence Plasmid (pYV)-Associated Expression of Phenotypic Virulent Determinants in Pathogenic Yersinia Species: A Convenient Method for Monitoring the Presence of pYV under Culture Conditions and Its Application for Isolation/Detection of Yersinia pestis in Food. Copyright © 2011 Saumya Bhaduri and James L. Smith.

Why is transformation of bacteria with plasmids important?

You may also like… Transformation is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell. Transformation of bacteria with plasmids is important not only for studies in bacteria but also because bacteria are used as the means for both storing and replicating plasmids.

Which is the best cell to transform plasmid DNA?

The lowest efficiency cells (usually the least expensive) are fine for transforming plasmid DNA for the purposes of storage and amplification. Higher efficiency cells are more important if you will be transforming with very small amounts of DNA or if you’re multiple plasmids at once.