What is a Pseudohole?
A pseudohole is nothing more than a hole within an epiretinal membrane at the fovea, although it may resemble a full-thickness hole. It can be difficult to differentiate between pseudoholes and full-thickness holes, but there are some distinguishable features to look for.
What is a Pseudohole in the eye?
Macular pseudohole: Not a true hole; rather it is a condition in which scar tissue called epiretinal membrane tugs or pulls on the underlying retina, which can look similar to a macular hole during a clinical eye examination.
What is a lamellar hole in the eye?
Lamellar macular hole (LMH) is a vitreoretinal disorder characterized by an irregular foveal contour, a break in the inner fovea, dehiscence of the inner foveal retina from the outer retina, and the absence of a full-thickness foveal defect with intact foveal photoreceptors.
How do you treat a lamellar hole?
In patients with lamellar macular hole, combination treatment with pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling appears to be effective, but further studies are required to establish new treatment modalities for patients who do not have a satisfactory outcome from treatment.
What causes macular Pseudohole?
Essentially, a tug-of-war takes place, with the body of the vitreous shrinking while the “stubborn” fibers hold tight to the retina. This tug-of-war can cause a hole in the macula, the area of clearest central vision in the retina.
Is a lamellar hole serious?
Most lamellar holes do not require treatment. “Visual acuity, especially if it’s decreasing, should be the primary determinant of whether or not to offer surgery,” Dr. Thompson said. Eyes with prominent ERM may require surgery because they tend to have less favorable results if they are not treated.
What is laser photocoagulation used for?
Laser photocoagulation is a type of laser surgery for the eyes. It is done to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a condition that can lead to loss of vision. The retina is the layer of cells in the back of your eye that converts light into electrical signals.
What does metamorphopsia mean?
Metamorphopsia was defined as the deviation of either vertical or horizontal lines, reported by the patient, and consisted of the first visual disturbance sometimes preceding clinical appearance of maculopathy [6,7].
What does metamorphopsia look like?
Metamorphopsia symptoms When you have metamorphopsia, you may find that: Straight objects, like a signpost, appear wavy. Flat things, such as the sign itself, look rounded. Shapes, such as a face, can appear distorted.
How many days face down after vitrectomy?
Patients having vitreo-retinal surgery for a macular hole will need to posture face down for 14 days; for other conditions this is only necessary for 5 days.
Why is the pseudohole on the ERM called a pseudohole?
Sometimes the pulling or wrinkling of the epiretinal membrane (ERM) can result in a gap (a pseudohole) on the ERM. This is called a “pseudohole” because it appears similar to a macular hole. This is called a “pseudohole” because it appears similar to a macular hole.
What is a pseudohole in the macula called?
If there is significant traction on the underlying retina by the epiretinal membrane, the retina develops a wrinkle or bulge or pucker, called macular pucker. Treatment of an epiretinal membrane is not initiated unless vision becomes substantially affected. A pseudohole is not a hole in the macula.
Which is the best definition of a leader?
Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration and director of the action. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and leadership skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction.
Do you need surgery for a pseudohole in your eye?
The epiretinal membrane (ERM) that is causing the appearance of a pseudohole may cause no symptoms or may cause visual distortion or decreased vision. If the vision impairment is significant, surgery may be indicated.