Which catalyst is used in hydrocracking?
Which catalyst is used in hydrocracking?
DN-3622 is ideal catalyst for high severity hydrocracking applications to maximize nitrogen removal and fully unlock the capabilities of Zeolyst™ advanced hydrocracking catalysts.
What is the hydrocracking process?
Hydrocracking is a process to convert larger hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules under high hydrogen pressure and elevated temperature. It is commonly applied to upgrade the heavier fractions of the crude oils to produce higher value transportation fuels.
What type of mechanism is catalytic cracking?
The catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons is a chain reaction that is believed to follow the carbonium ion theory developed by Whitmore . This chain mechanism involves three elementary steps: initiation, propagation and termination.
What is the difference between hydrocracking and catalytic cracking?
The basis of catalytic cracking is carbon rejection, while hydrocracking is a hydrogen addition process. Catalyst cracking uses an acid catalyst, while hydrocracking uses a metal catalyst on acid support. Another differnce is that catalyst cracking is an endothermic process while hydrocracking is an exothermic process.
What is the catalyst used in catalytic reforming?
Catalytic reforming uses a catalyst, usually platinum, to produce a similar result. Mixed with hydrogen, naphtha is heated and passed over pellets of catalyst in a series of reactors, under high pressure, producing high-octane gasoline.
Why hydrogen is used in hydrocracking?
The saturation of the lighter hydrocarbons releases heat and causes the feed and products to heat up as they proceed through the reactor. Hydrogen is also used to control the temperature of the reactor—it is fed into the reactor at different points.
What is the purpose of hydrocracking?
Hydrocracking is usually performed on heavy gas oils and residues, to remove feed contaminants (nitrogen, sulfur, metals) and to convert them into lighter fractions including diesel gasoils.
What is the reforming process?
Reforming is a process designed to increase the volume of gasoline that can be produced from a barrel of crude oil. Reforming rearranges naphtha hydrocarbons into gasoline molecules. …
What type of reaction is cracking?
Cracking is an example of a thermal decomposition chemical reaction.
What is the difference between hydrocracking and hydrotreating?
The key difference between hydrocracking and hydrotreating is that hydrocracking includes the conversion of high boiling constituents into low boiling constituents, whereas hydrotreating includes the removal of oxygen and other heteroatoms. Hydrocracking and hydrotreating are useful processes in petroleum oil refining.
What is catalytic reforming?
Catalytic reforming is a process used to convert low-octane naphthas into high-octane gasoline blending components called reformates. Reforming is the total effect of several reactions that occur simultaneously including cracking, polymerization, dehydrogenation, and isomerization.
What happens to the catalyst during hydrocracking reaction?
Coke can also deposit during hydrocracking resulting in the deactivation of the catalyst. The catalyst in this case has to be re-activated by burning off the deposited coke. The catalyst is selected to produce a slow hydrocracking reaction. Coke formation is favoured at low partial pressures of hydrogen.
What happens to the reformate yield in hydrocracking?
The reactions are highly exothermic and consume high amounts of hydrogen. Cracking results in the loss of the reformate yield. Paraffin hydrocracking: Other paraffins can crack to give C 1 –C 4 products. Coke can also deposit during hydrocracking resulting in the deactivation of the catalyst.
What kind of pressure do you need for hydrocracking?
Coke formation is favoured at low partial pressures of hydrogen. Hydrocracking is controlled by operating the reaction at low pressure between 5–25 atm (74–368 psia), not too low for coke deposition and not too high in order to avoid cracking and loss of reformate yield.
What makes Y zeolites a good catalyst for hydrocracking?
Catalysts based on Y zeolites with high density of framework Al (i.e. high density of Brönsted acid sites) display high activity and high selectivity to gasoline-range (C 5 -C 11) hydrocarbons, but also produce high yields of gases (C 4- ).