How is cyanogen chloride used?
Cyanogen chloride is used in chemical synthesis (military poison gas), as a warning agent in fumigant gases, and as a tear gas, metal cleaner (in ore refining or production of synthetic rubber), as well as for electroplating and photography.
What does cyanogen chloride do to your body?
Exposure to cyanogen chloride (CK) can be rapidly fatal. It has whole-body (systemic) effects, particularly affecting those organ systems most sensitive to low oxygen levels: the central nervous system (brain), the cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), and the pulmonary system (lungs).
When has cyanogen chloride been used?
Cyanides have been used for their toxic potential since ancient Roman times. The use of cyanides in warfare was not implemented until World War I. France combined hydrocyanic chloride acid with cyanogen chloride and used it for the first time against the Germans in October 1916.
How is cyanogen chloride produced?
Cyanogen chloride is produced by the oxidation of sodium cyanide with chlorine. This reaction proceeds via the intermediate cyanogen ((CN)2). The compound trimerizes in the presence of acid to the heterocycle called cyanuric chloride.
What does cyanogen chloride smell like?
Abstract. Cyanogen chloride at room temperature is a colorless gas with a pungent, biting odor that has been described as ‘pepper-like.
What is the Cyanogen?
CyanogenMod (/saɪˈænoʊdʒɛnmɒd/ sy-AN-o-jen-mod; CM) is a discontinued open-source operating system for mobile devices, based on the Android mobile platform. CyanogenMod offered features and options not found in the official firmware distributed by mobile device vendors.
What is lewisite used for?
Lewisite was produced in 1918 to be used in World War I, but its production was too late for it to be used in the war. Lewisite has been used only as a chemical warfare agent. It has no medical or other practical use. Lewisite is not found naturally in the environment.
How is sodium cyanide produced?
Production and chemical properties Sodium cyanide is produced by treating hydrogen cyanide with sodium hydroxide: HCN + NaOH → NaCN + H2O. Sodium cyanide reacts rapidly with strong acids to release hydrogen cyanide.
What are the characteristics of cyanogen chloride ( CK )?
Agent Characteristics 1 APPEARANCE: Colorless, liquid below 55°F (12.8°C) or gas above 55°F (12.8°C). 2 DESCRIPTION: Cyanogen chloride (CK) is a highly volatile and toxic chemical asphyxiant… 3 METHODS OF DISSEMINATION : 4 ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: Cyanogen chloride (CK) can affect the body by inhalation, ingestion,…
What can cyanogen chloride be used to contaminate?
Indoor Air: Cyanogen chloride (CK) can be released into indoor air as a liquid spray (aerosol) or as a gas. Water: Cyanogen chloride (CK) can be used to contaminate water. Food: Cyanogen chloride (CK) can be used to contaminate food. Outdoor Air: Cyanogen chloride (CK) can be released into outdoor air as a liquid spray (aerosol) or as a gas.
What can you wear with cyanogen chloride ( CK )?
Limited to coveralls or other work clothes, boots, and gloves. Cyanogen chloride (CK) decomposes on heating, producing toxic and corrosive fumes (hydrogen cyanide, hydrochloric acid, and nitrogen oxides). See the emergency response cards for hydrogen cyanide and hydrochloric acid.
What can you use to keep cyanogen chloride out of fire?
Cyanogen chloride (CK) may burn, but it does not ignite readily. For small fires, use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. For large fires, use water spray, fog, or regular foam. Move containers from the fire area if it is possible to do so without risk to personnel. Do not get water inside containers.